Video clips

Vorticella 1

Vorticella 1
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Zoothamnium - Big colony of geneticly identical animals (top view), fastened to the main stem by small contractile pedicles.

When there are vibrations the whole colony contract swiftly to a "ball" and unfold like a blossom when the danger is over.

Vorticella 2

Vorticella 2
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Zoothamnium - Details of a colony. Tiny heads with whirling cilia.

The curled myonema (contractile protein fibrils) inside the pedicle are clearly visible. In a sense they are to be muscle fibres.

Vorticella 3

Vorticella 3
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Zoothamnium - If irritated the heads are jerked out of the dangerous area Žby contracting its myonema. Re-extension is performed by extremely thin fibrils in a much slower movement.